The structure of Merchant Navy certification has been radically changed, partly in the name of "progress" and partly to comply with International Maritime Organisation requirements which are embodied in the STCW code. More radical is the change in the way certificates are acquired. The aspiring Officer of the Watch can now achieve certification through NVQ or SVQ unit achievement ratified by MSA oral examination.This new publication, which replaces Practical Navigation for Second Mates and Principals and Practices of Navigation, has been extended in scope to reflect these changes.The main subject matter covered relates to the use of charts and other Admiralty navigational publications, chart constructions, visual and radar terrestrial navigation, including the use of celestial bodies for the calculation of compass errors and position fixing. All navigational aspects of planning and executing the voyage safely and successfully are included with worked examples and exercises with answers and all the necessary extracts from Nautical Almanac and Tide Tables required.It is the author's view that while it is obviously wrong to reject the benefits of technological advances it is professionally inept to rely on such devices to the exclusion of basic principles and techniques tried and tested over many decades. It is also his opinion that the information and knowledge in this publication will be of value for the foreseeable future.