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Ethics Theory & Practice 11E CP

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This custom edition is published for The University of Western Sydney.

CONTENTS 

Preface xiii 

  1. Chapter 1: The Nature of Morality 1 
    1. Objectives 1 
    2. What Is Philosophy and Ethics’ Relationship to It? 1 
    3. Definition of Key Terms 2 
    4. Approaches to the Study of Morality 5 
    5. Morality and Its Applications 7 
    6. Where Does Morality Come From? 11 
    7. Customary or Traditional and Reflective Morality 15 
    8. Morality, Law, and Religion 16 
    9. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development 21 
    10. Why Should Human Beings Be Moral? 22 
    11. Chapter Summary 25
    12. Exercises for Review 27 
    13. Discussion Questions 28 
    14. Ethics Problem 28 
    15. Notes 29 
  2. Chapter 2: Consequentialist (Teleological) Theories of Morality 30 
    1. Objectives 30 
    2. Psychological Egoism 31 
    3. Ethical Egoism 32 
    4. Utilitarianism 37 
    5. Difficulty with Consequentialist Theories in General 41 
    6. Care Ethics 41 
    7. Chapter Summary 43
    8. Exercises for Review 44 
    9. Discussion Questions 44
    10. Ethics Problem 45
    11. Notes 45 
  3. Chapter 3: Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) Theories of Morality 46 
    1. Objectives 46 
    2. Act Nonconsequentialist Theories 47 
    3. Rule Nonconsequentialist Theories 49 
    4. General Criticisms of Nonconsequentialist Theories 55 
    5. Conclusions 56 
    6. Chapter Summary 57
    7. Exercises for Review 59 
    8. Discussion Questions 59 
    9. Ethics Problem 60 
    10. Notes 60 
  4. Chapter 4: Virtue Ethics 61 
    1. Objectives 61 
    2. Definition of Terms 61 
    3. Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics 62 
    4. Confucian Moral Self-Cultivation 63 
    5. Confucian Role Ethics 66 
    6. Contemporary Analysis of Virtue Ethics 68 
    7. Who Is the Ideal Virtuous Person? 70 
    8. Vice and Virtue 71 
    9. Conclusions 73 
    10. Chapter Summary 74
    11. Exercises for Review 75 
    12. Discussion Questions 75 
    13. Ethics Problem 76
    14. Notes 76 
  5. Chapter 5: Absolutism Versus Relativism 77 
    1. Objectives 77 
    2. The Meanings of Absolute 78 
    3. The Meaning of Relative 78 
    4. Cultural Relativism and Cultural Absolutism 78 
    5. Propositions and Truth 80 
    6. Conclusion 86 
    7. Chapter Summary 87
    8. Exercises for Review 88 
    9. Discussion Questions 89 
    10. Ethics Problem 89 
    11. Notes 90 
  6. Chapter 6: Freedom Versus Determinism 91 
    1. Objectives 91 
    2. The Meaning of Determinism 91 
    3. Types and Theories of Determinism 92 
    4. Fatalism and Hard and Soft Determinism 96 
    5. Indeterminism 99 
    6. Criticisms of Hard Determinism and Arguments for Freedom 99 
    7. Conclusion: Soft Determinism 102 
    8. Chapter Summary 102
    9. Exercises for Review 104 
    10. Discussion Questions 104 
    11. Ethics Problem 105 
    12. Notes 105 
  7. Chapter 7 Reward and Punishment 106 
    1. Objectives 106 
    2. Definition of Key Terms 106 
    3. Reward and Punishment in Relationship to Justice 107 
    4. Elements of Justice 107 
    5. Reward 108 
    6. Theories of How to Reward 113 
    7. John Rawls and His Theory of Justice 114 
    8. Punishment 116 
    9. Theories of Punishment 118 
    10. Is a Synthesis Possible? 126 
    11. Human Rights 128 
    12. Summary 131
    13. Exercises for Review 135 
    14. Discussion Questions 136 
    15. Ethics Problem 136 
    16. Notes 137 
  8. Chapter 8: Setting Up a Moral System: Basic Assumptions and Basic Principles 138 
    1. Objectives 138 
    2. Conflicting General Moral Issues 139 
    3. Basic Assumptions 140 
    4. Basic Principles, Individual Freedom, and Their Justification 144 
    5. Priority of the Basic Principles 152 
    6. A General Way of Determining Priority—Two Categories 152 
    7. How the System of Humanitarian Ethics Works 155 
    8. Conclusion 157 
    9. Chapter Summary 158
    10. Exercises for Review 159 
    11. Discussion Questions 159
    12. Notes 159 
  9. Chapter 9: The Taking of Human Life 160 
    1. Objectives 160 
    2. The Taking of Human Life 160 
    3. Suicide 161 
    4. Defense of the Innocent (The Self Included) 164 
    5. Cases for Study and Discussion 165 
    6. War 165 
    7. Terrorism 168 
    8. Cases for Study and Discussion 170 
    9. Capital Punishment 171 
    10. Cases for Study and Discussion 175 
    11. Chapter Summary 176
    12. Exercises for Review 178 
    13. Views of the Major Ethical Theories on the Taking of Human Life 178 
    14. Suicide 178 
    15. Defense of the Innocent 179 
    16. War and Terrorism 180 
    17. Capital Punishment 181 
    18. Reader Reactions 182 
    19. Ethics Problem 182 
    20. Notes 182 
  10. Chapter 10: Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing 183 
    1. Objectives 183 
    2. Definition of Terms 183 
    3. Current Legal Status of Mercy Death and Mercy Killing 184 
    4. Allowing Someone to Die 186 
    5. Cases for Study and Discussion 206 
    6. Mercy Death 208 
    7. Cases for Study and Discussion 215 
    8. Mercy Killing 216 
    9. Cases for Study and Discussion 218 
    10. Chapter Summary 219
    11. Exercises for Review 222 
    12. Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Allowing Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing 223 
    13. Ethics Problem 223 
    14. Notes 223 
  11. Chapter 11: Abortion 224 
    1. Objectives 224 
    2. Introduction to the Abortion Issue 224 
    3. When Does Human Life Begin? 227 
    4. Arguments Against Abortion 229
    5. Arguments for Abortion 232 
    6. The More Moderate Positions on Abortion 236 
    7. Cases for Study and Discussion 239 
    8. Chapter Summary 240
    9. Exercises for Review 242 
    10. Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Abortion 242 
    11. Ethics Problem 243 
    12. Notes 243 
  12. Chapter 12 Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing 244 
    1. Objectives 244 
    2. Definition of Key Terms 245 
    3. Nonconsequentialist and Consequentialist Views 246 
    4. Lying 247 
    5. Cases for Study and Discussion 253 
    6. Cheating 254 
    7. Cases for Study and Discussion 256 
    8. Breaking Promises 257 
    9. Cases for Study and Discussion 261 
    10. Stealing 262 
    11. Cases for Study and Discussion 265 
    12. Chapter Summary 266
    13. Exercises for Review 268 
    14. Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Lying, Cheating, 
    15. Breaking Promises, and Stealing 268 
    16. Ethics Problem 269 
    17. Notes 269 
  13. Chapter 13 Morality, Marriage, and Human Sexuality 270 
    1. Objectives 270 
    2. Major Aspects of Human Sexuality 270 
    3. The Meaning and Purposes of Human Sexuality 271 
    4. Premarital Sex 275 
    5. Sex in Marriage-Type Relationships (Including Nonlegal) 278 
    6. Masturbation 285 
    7. Pornography 285 
    8. Prostitution 287 
    9. Sexual Perversion or “Unnatural” Sexual Activity 288 
    10. Cases for Study and Discussion 288 
    11. Chapter Summary 290
    12. Exercises for Review 293 
    13. Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Morality, Marriage, and Human Sexuality 294 
    14. Ethics Problem 294 
    15. Notes 294 
  14. Chapter 14: Bioethics—Ethical Issues in Medicine 295 
    1. Objectives 295 
    2. What Is Bioethics? 295 
    3. Health Care Professionals and Patients and Their Families— 
    4. Rights and Obligations 296 
    5. Truth Telling and Informed Consent 299 
    6. Confidentiality 304 
    7. Guilt and Innocence in Treating Patients 305 
    8. Ethical Issues in Medicine 306 
    9. Stem Cell Research 310 
    10. Cases for Study and Discussion 312 
    11. Chapter Summary 314
    12. Exercises for Review 319 
    13. Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Bioethical Issues 320 
    14. Ethics Problem 320 
    15. Notes 320 
  15. Chapter 15 Business and Media Ethics 322 
    1. Objectives 322 
    2. Introduction 322 
    3. Rights and Obligations in Business 323 
    4. Two Ways of Approaching Rights and Obligations in Business 324 
    5. The Moderate Position 325 
    6. Justice, Truth Telling, and Honesty in Business 326 
    7. Ethical Issues in Business 327 
    8. Sexual Harassment 332 
    9. The New Global Economy and the International Business Scene 335 
    10. Media Ethics 336 
    11. Corporate Greed—Enron 339 
    12. Cases for Study and Discussion 341 
    13. Chapter Summary 345
    14. Exercises for Review 349 
    15. Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Business and Media Ethics 349 
    16. Ethics Problem 349 
    17. Notes 350 
  16. Chapter 16 Environmental Ethics 351 
    1. Objectives 351 
    2. Definition of Key Terms 351 
    3. Nature and Morality 352 
    4. Environmental Ethical Issues 352 
    5. Our Attitude Toward Nature and What Lies Behind It 354 
    6. Arguments for Use and Exploitation of the Natural Environment 356 
    7. Arguments Against the Use and Exploitation of Nature 357 
    8. Moderate Position 359 
    9. Criteria for Animal Rights 359 
    10. Ways of Dealing with Animal Rights 360 
    11. Use of Animals for Food 361 
    12. Use of Animals for Experimentation 362 
    13. Killing Animals for Sport 364 
    14. Protection of Endangered Species 366 
    15. Non-Western Perspectives on Environmental Issues 366 
    16. Conclusion 370 
    17. Cases for Study and Discussion 370 
    18. Chapter Summary 372
    19. Exercises for Review 375 
    20. Views of the Major Ethical Theories on Environmental Ethics 376 
    21. Ethics Problem 376 
    22. Notes 376 
  17. Appendixes 379 
    1. Introduction 379
    2. Appendix 1: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of the Taking of Human Life 380 
    3. Appendix 2: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Allowing 
    4. Someone to Die, Mercy Death, and Mercy Killing 389
    5. Appendix 3: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Abortion 396 
    6. Appendix 4: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Lying, Cheating, Breaking Promises, and Stealing 405 
    7. Appendix 5: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to the Moral Problems of Human Sexuality 412 
    8. Appendix 6: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems in Medicine (Bioethics) 417
    9. Appendix 7: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Moral Problems in Business (Business and Media Ethics) 423 
    10. Appendix 8: Applying Humanitarian Ethics to Environmental Ethics 429 
  18. Supplementary Reading 433 
  19. Glossary 444 
  20. Index 452 

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